November 11-28, 1991 - Minister of Science and Technical Policy of the RSFSR. From December 3, 1991 to March 25, 1993 - Minister of Science, Higher Education and Technical Policy of Russia.
From November 30, 1992 to December 6, 1996 - Chairman of the State Expert Council under the President of the Russian Federation on especially valuable objects of cultural heritage of the peoples of the Russian Federation.
Since June 4, 1992 - Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation
From August 21, 1992 to November 4, 1996 - Chairman of the Commission of the Russian Federation for UNESCO.
From December 23, 1992 to March 25, 1993 - Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers - the Government of the Russian Federation in the first Government of V.S.Chernomyrdin.
From 1992 to October 14, 1996 - Plenipotentiary Representative of the Government of the Russian Federation at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.
From March 25, 1993 to August 14, 1996 - Minister of Science and Technical Policy of the Russian Federation.
From December 1993 to January 1996 - Deputy of the State Duma of the Russian Federation of the 1st convocation (according to the federal list of "Russia's Choice"), was a member of the "Russia's Choice" faction, was a member of the Committee on Education, Culture and Science. In March 1994, a member of the initiative group for the creation of the Democratic Choice of Russia (RDC) party.
From 1996 to 2003, he was a member of the Strategic Committee of the Open Society Institute (Soros Foundation), which oversaw the Internet Centers Networking program. From March 7, 1998 to April 27, 2000 - General Director of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Russian Technologies".
From 1992 to 2018 - President of the RD MNTS Association